Madras State was formed in
1956 and renamed as Tamil Nadu on January
14, 1969.Tmil Nadu is one of the 28 states
of India. It lies on the eastern coast of
the southern Indian Peninsula bordered by
Puducherry (Pondicherry), Kerala, Karnataka
and Andhra Pradesh. Tamil Nadu is bound by
the Eastern Ghats in the north, the Nilgiri,
the Anamalai Hills, and Palakkad on the
west, Bay of Bengal in the east, Gulf of
Mannar, Palk Strait in the south east and
Indian Ocean in the south. It is the
eleventh largest state in India by area
(about the size of Greece)and the seventh most populous state in India with a population of 72,138,958 (5.96% of India's population; census 2011) . It is the seventh most densely populated state in India with a population density of 555 persons per square kilometre as of 2011, having increased from 429 in 1991, significantly higher than the Indian average of 382 persons per square kilometre. 44% of the state's population live in urban areas.
Tamil Nadu is the homeland of the Tamils and has
existed since prehistoric times. The culture and
artwork of this region are considered to be some
of the oldest in the world. It is home to one of
the world’s classical languages, Tamil. The
language has been documented as being around for
at least 5,000 years in written form, but was
spoken long before that. Tamil Nadu also has one
of the oldest culinary heritages in the world.
Tamil Nadu is the epicentre of Dravidian
politics in India, which are dominated by the
DMK and AIADMK parties. The fifth largest
contributor to India’s and one of the most
urbanised states in India, it is home to many
natural resources, rare flora and fauna, cool
hill stations, grand Hindu temples of Dravidian
architecture, beach resorts, multi-religious
pilgrimage sites and few UNESCO World Heritage
Sites. It is one of the foremost states in the
country in terms of overall development.
Tamil Nadu has a long tradition of venerable culture.
Tamil Nadu is known for its rich tradition of literature,
music and dance which continue to flourish today. Unique
cultural features like Bharatanatyam (dance), Tanjore
painting, and Tamil architecture were developed and
continue to be practised in Tamil Nadu.
Dress Code : Style of dressing by the Tamils were so simple
and humble a piece of white cloth measuring four or eight feet
with a shirt is enough to complete their dress. Now it is giving
way to pant and shirt and even designer dresses. Ladies when
attained puberty wore a long skirt with blouse and a piece of
cloth called ‘thaavani’ to cover the top portion of the body.
After marriage they wear Saree and blouse. Now modern dresses are
slowly making their way to replace these traditional dresses.
Governance and administration :
The Governor is the Constitutional head of the state while the Chief Minister is the head of the government and the head of the council of ministers.
The Chief Justice of the Madras High Court is the head of the judiciary. The present Governor,
Chief Minister and the Chief Justice are Dr .K. Rosaiah , Selvi J. Jayalalithaa and Thiru.Justice Rajesh Kumar Agarwal
respectively. The major administrative units of the state constitutes 39 Lok Sabha
constituencies, 234 Assembly constituencies, 32 districts, 12 city corporations, 152 municipalities,
611 town panchayats and 12,618 village panchayats. Chennai (formerly known as Madras)
is the state capital. It is the fourth largest city in India and is also one of the
five A1 Metropolitan cities of India.
Tamil Nadu had a bicameral legislature until 1986, when it was
replaced with a unicameral legislature, like most other states in India. The term length of the
government is 5 years, as is elsewhere in India. The present government run by the ADMK led
alliance came to power in 2011 and comprises a council of 33 ministers, headed by the Chief
Minister J. Jayalalitha. Tamil Nadu legislative assembly is housed at the St.George Fort in Chennai.
The state had come under the President's rule on four occasions – first
from 1976 to 1977, next for a short period in 1980, then from 1988 to 1989 and the latest in 1991.
Tamil Nadu has been a pioneering state of E-Governance initiatives in India.
A large part of the government records like land ownership records are digitised and all major
offices of the state government like Urban Local Bodies — all the Corporations and Municipal
Office activities — revenue collection, land registration offices, and transport offices have
been computerised. Tamil Nadu is one of the states where law and order has been maintained largely
successfully. The Tamil Nadu Police Force is over 140 years old. It is the fifth largest state
police force in India and has the largest strength of women police personnel in the country.
As of 2003, the state had a total police population ratio of 1:668, higher than the national
average of 1:717. The current Director General of Police (law and order) of Tamil Nadu is J.K.Tripathi.
UNESCO World Heritage Sites : The Great Living Chola Temples are built
during the Chola rule in the south of India.
These temples are the Brihadisvara Temple at
Thanjavur, the Temple of Gangaikonda-
cholisvaram and the Airavatesvara Temple at
Darasuram. The Brihadisvara Temple was
declared by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site
in 1987; the Temple of Gangaikondacholapuam
and the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram
were added as extensions to the site in
2004. The site is now known as the “Great
Living Chola Temples”.
Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram :
This group of sanctuaries, founded by
the Pallava kings, was carved out of rock
along the Coromandel coast in the 7th and
8th centuries. Only 58 km from Chennai, this
world heritage site in Tamil Nadu gained
this distinction in 1984.
This temple town is said to be at least two
thousand years old and boasts of about forty
monuments; for its ‘rathas’, 11 excavated
temples or ‘mandapas’, giant open-air relief
such as the famous `Descent of the Ganges`
and `Arjuna`s Penance` and the temple of
Rivage, with thousands of sculptures to the
glory of Shiva. These monuments are mostly
rock-cut and monolithic, and constitute the
early stages of Dravidian architecture
wherein Buddhist elements of design are
Besides this, there are several famous
temples at Mahabalipuram. The Temple of
Sthalasayana Perumal and the Shore Temple
are perhaps the best of all. It is believed
by some that this area served as a school
for young sculptors. The different
sculptures, some half finished, may have
been examples of different styles of
Nilgiri Mountain Railway :
In July 2005, UNESCO added the Nilgiri
Mountain Railway as an extension to the
World Heritage Site of Darjeeling Himalayan
Railway, the site then became known as
“Mountain Railways of India.” after it
satisfied the necessary criteria, thus
forcing abandonment of modernisation plans.